Sunday, 18 July 2021

An Interview with Dr Jefferson F. Calico

This week’s interview is with Dr Jefferson F. Calico, an associate professor at the University of the Cumberlands in Williamsburg, Kentucky. Dr Calico completed his PhD research at the Southern Baptist Theological Seminary in Louisville, Kentucky in 2013, for which he conducted fieldwork among American practitioners of Heathenry, a modern Pagan religion whose adherents seek to reconstruct the pre-Christian traditions of Europe’s linguistically Germanic communities. This research provided the data for his subsequent book, Being Viking: Heathenism in Contemporary America (Equinox, 2018), which is one of two important works on American Heathenry that have appeared over the past decade, the other being American Heathens: The Politics of Identity in a Pagan Religious Movement (Temple University Press, 2015) by Dr Jennifer Snook, who was previously interviewed here back in March. In this interview, Dr Calico discusses how he first came to be interested in Heathenry, his experiences conducting ethnographic research, and the impact of growing ideological polarisation on the U.S. Heathen community.

[EDW] For readers who may not be familiar with the topic, could you give us an idea as to what the modern Pagan religion of Heathenry is?

[JFC] Heathenry is a new religious movement/milieu that looks to ancient Norse and Germanic cultures for inspiration in creating contemporary approaches to life, spirituality, and the world.

From a historical perspective, the “modern Pagan religion of Heathenry” can be traced back to a particular set of people and religious awakenings in the early 1970s. I look at this historical process in chapter one of Being Viking:

For these early adherents, the religious entrepreneurs of Asatru, the Norse heritage, history, customs, and stories suddenly and powerfully took on more than historical and cultural significance. They awakened to a new life-way, a paradigm that could transform life, a roadmap for the creation of a new culture. The Christian age was over. The time had come for the old gods to reassert themselves amongst their human kin in the reconstruction of an ancient religio-cultural community. (Being Viking, 58)

Ideologically, Heathen and Heathenry or Heathenism are umbrella terms covering a diverse array of more specific approaches. That diversity encompasses differences in orientation along political/social lines (this spectrum is the one of which most observers are aware), but also differences in theological, cultural, ethical, and aesthetic opinions and approaches. For American Heathenry, I think that my book Being Viking and Jennifer Snook’s book American Heathens both describe some of that diversity among Heathens.

What makes it Heathen—rather than historical re-enactment or Vikings fandom for instance—is a shared spiritual core. This includes texts (the Lore), Gods, ancestors, nature spirits often called “land vaettir” (because Heathen LOVE to use words derived from Old Norse and other Germanic languages. Really, a Heathen gathering isn’t complete if someone doesn’t drop some Old Norse or Anglo-Saxon), concepts, runes, time, and rituals—derived from the pre-Christian cultures of northern Europe.

As I said to a writer from “How Stuff Works” [] Heathens look at these pre-Christian traditions of the past as repositories of ancient sacred wisdom and lifestyles that connected humans and their communities to the cosmos and to each other in ways that are holy and sacred. For Heathens, reconnecting to these spiritual resources—the ancient wisdom, beings, and forces—is a return to a fully human life – living “tru.” The old ways (Forn Sed or forn siðr) established relational networks to these resources and beings that nourished human life and produced thriving. In Being Viking, I devote chapter four, “Spears and Shieldwalls,” to a discussion of this Heathen concept of life. Rather than the “coming home” idea that been used to describe Pagan conversion, I would use “re-connecting” to talk about how Heathens relate to their religious system.

[EDW] Where did your interest in Heathenry come from and what led you to pursue your doctoral research on this new religious movement? Did you have a longstanding research interest in new and alternative religions?

[JFC] I can look back into my personal history and see how many moments played into my craft and practice. I have been interested in religion and culture for as long as I can remember and was encouraged to explore these aspects of life through reading, experiences, and friendships. Living in an Inupiaq community in northern Alaska opened my eyes to the importance of culture as a human phenomenon. Stepping into a classroom for the first time to teach world religions came to be a challenging and deeply creative experience for me.

Many of us have experienced paradigm shifting moments during our educational journeys— those moments of discovery that unfold for us along new and unexpected paths. These moments arise from all sorts of stimuli—disciplined reading, insights from our teachers, and from seemingly random “aha” moments, to name a few. In my own journey, one of those moments came for me in reading Carole Cusack’s Invented Religions (Routledge, 2010; [EDW: Professor Cusack was interviewed here back in 2014]). The cumulative effect of that book rescued me from a previously dismissive attitude about new religious movements and opened a new world of scholarly interest. I had entered my PhD program initially intending to pursue research on Islam. However, a conversation with my supervisor—strangely enough about the 1994 Olympics hosted by Norway—caused me to re-evaluate and drew my attention to the growing presence and influence of Paganism in the contemporary world. As I discuss in the introduction to Being Viking, an offhand question in a graduate seminar stirred my initial curiosity about Heathenry and led to it becoming a major interest. A chance conversation with a friend, Dr Thad Horrell, while walking to an American Academy of Religion (AAR) venue in San Diego led to a new line of inquiry and research that helped me to better understand the tributaries of American Heathenry. Rather than one over-riding passion, my interests and work have been nudged along by these sorts of important and transformative experiences.

[EDW] The study of modern Paganism (including the study of Heathenry) has tended to be dominated by practicing Pagans, but – if I understand correctly – you are not coming at Heathenry from a practitioner perspective. How do you feel that this status as an ‘outsider’ impacted your reception when conducting participant-observation with Heathen groups, and has it impacted your interactions with other scholars of Paganism?

[JFC] Look, field work is difficult. It raises all sorts of challenges. When engaged in field work, all of us who are doing anthropology and ethnography bring aspects of identity, personal history, and value/ideology differences that must be negotiated with our host communities and within ourselves. As a guest in people’s homes and religious events, researchers are being invited into sacred and intimate settings, so respect and trust is essential. I quickly found that methodology has ethical implications and in this regard Jone Salomonsen’s work on methodology was influential for my approach. The relationship with a host community and different individuals therein is a process, an ongoing effort to analyze, evaluate, and respond.  I do not think it is categorically different for “insiders” except that the issues and dilemmas themselves may vary. And the stakes are potentially higher for those who are devotionally committed to the religions they study. Insiders also experience a range of responses from their communities and face challenges in negotiating their presence and their relationships. I think—for some insiders—the relationship with their religious community is forever changed for better or worse by their research experience. I do want to push back against a dichotomizing assumption that “outsider” and “insider” are clearly definable terms. Both insiders and outsiders can and do take both emic and etic perspectives during the research process. The methodologies we employ for field work should weave us through both of these perspectives, thereby complicating the outsider/insider perspective. That said, the goal for both insiders and outsiders is always good research.

But yes as an outsider certain difficulties presented themselves from the outset. When I was attempting my first field experience with a Heathen group, my positionality (i.e., the institution with which I was affiliated for my PhD work) was an immediate red flag to my hosts. This was no surprise to any of us. There were good reasons for their hesitancy. Any religious group—and particularly Pagans who have experienced religious persecution from hegemonic religions—want to protect the integrity of their events, avoid persecution and exploitation. From my perspective, this was a challenge that I was committed to working through. And to their immense credit, the group did not simply cut me off. They were willing to enter into a discussion and negotiation that resulted in the leadership of that group getting to know me and granting permission to attend their religious event as a researcher. Several of those leaders went on to become friends and collaborators and are people whom I greatly respect. As I moved among Heathen religious communities and groups during field work, similar vetting processes took place repeatedly. From my perspective, the onus is on the researcher to establish and maintain working relationships. There are always people who are going to be suspicious and even hostile, and some people with whom work is not possible—but that’s okay. For the most part, I found that Heathen people were careful but hospitable and willing to take a risk with a stranger as long as trust can be established. I am grateful for the many Heathens who spoke with me about their religion and shared their thoughts and experiences.

Regarding the scholarly community, I feel strongly that we should avoid tribalizing our fields of study along lines of religious affiliation. As scholars who want to understand the world more fully, insularity is not a positive trait. Positionality is important and we need to be serious about how it impacts our work. However, it should not be a barrier to scholarly inquiry or participation in scholarly community. Any field of study benefits from participants from a variety of perspectives. Are there limits to scholarly inclusivity? Of course, some positionalities do create conflicts of interest. Work that promotes anti-social, racial, and religious persecution is to be shunned. But generally speaking, scholarly communities should strive to be generous in whom they include as constructive participants. 

[EDW] Have you observed changes in the American (or international) Heathen community since you started your research on the topic in 2010? Obviously, there has been growing ideological polarisation within U.S. society during the last decade; has this had a significant impact on Heathenry?

[JFC] The ideological polarization has dramatically affected Heathenry in the American context. We have observed a hardening of folkish positions* as well as the emergence of anti-racist and inclusive Heathen identities – these aren’t new by any means, but have attained a new degree of prominence. I think that the older generations of Heathens, even those who were anti-racist, were more likely to hold a “live-and-let-live” perspective. These early generations of Heathens were part of building the religion with few adherents, little infrastructure, and resource scarcity. This situation impacted their understanding of community. However, due to incidents of racial violence, change in the American culture, and growth of the Heathen community, ideological positions within Heathenry have also become more pronounced and Heathens are more willing to draw hard and fast ideological lines such as Declaration 127 ( I see Heathenry experiencing a couple of “reformations” – an earlier one that sought to weed out Christian influence in Heathen culture and lore, and a current one that directly confronts the legacy of racism and neo-Nazi ideology. As an example, consider the new edition of The Troth’s tome Our Troth ( which contains a new chapter dealing with the influence of Völkisch and Nazi tributaries on the development of contemporary Heathenry.  

The importance of the internet has only increased in the last decade. Heathenry has seen the emergence of more extra-organizational voices—influencers with their own social media platforms like Instagram, Facebook, and Patreon. And on the far-right of Heathenry, ideologues have shifted toward alternative social media like Gab and VK as they have been de-platformed from mainstream social media sites. That is an important structural change. And these voices are often exploring new ways of being Heathen. Both ideological sides of Heathenry have seen the growth of new forms of (online) community that are not primarily religious in nature. More than just getting people together to do a ritual, Heathens are increasingly exploring cultural and lifestyle issues and thinking about how these work out in the contemporary world.

[* = EDW: Folkish Heathenry is a wing of the religion that generally argues that Heathen practice should be restricted to members of a putative Northern European/Germanic/Nordic racial group. Typically, it is characterised as being politically right-wing to far-right.]

[EDW] What has the response to your thesis and book been like? How have Heathens themselves responded to the work, and what was the response at the primarily Christian environment where you conducted your doctoral research (Southern Baptist Theological Seminary)?

[JFC] It has been rewarding to find Being Viking showing up in bibliographies, presentations at the AAR, and being used constructively in the research of other scholars. I hope it will continue to be a springboard for further work. And I hope it contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of Heathenry as much more than a hot mess of far-right racism. I think my book has a lot to say for those who will take some time with it.

I chose to pursue my PhD in World Religions where I did for a variety of reasons.  One of the benefits of that program was being able to work very closely with my supervisor, Dr James D. Chancellor. He was an impressive and inspiring ethnographer and researcher, and a great teacher, who wrote an important work on the new religious movement known as the Children of God, or The Family (Life in the Family: An Oral History of the Children of God, Syracuse, 2000).

Generally speaking, those of us who are researching and writing about Paganism and/or other socially controversial religious communities—and especially those of us who do intensive fieldwork with those groups—find ourselves potentially misunderstood by both our host and home communities. This experience of mistrust is an old story for all sorts of cross-cultural people. As Mary Douglas elucidated, doubts and suspicions about purity are frequently raised against boundary-crossers. Again, it is something that I find myself continually negotiating.

While the research for Being Viking began during my dissertation, it grew and expanded as I moved on from that degree program. So Being Viking is not a revision of my dissertation. It was a significantly different work. It reflects my own growth as a researcher and my continued interaction with the Heathen community. The book was guided by a completely different set of advisers and editors. Again, I can’t speak too highly of my editors Chas Clifton, author of Her Hidden Children (Rowman and Littlefield, 2006) [EDW: interviewed here back in 2012], and Scott Simpson, co-editor of Modern Pagan and Native Faith Movements in Central and Eastern Europe (Routledge, 2013), and the team at Equinox Publishing. They all made significant contributions to my life as a scholar. 

[EDW] What do you see as the areas of Heathenry that really require further academic research?

[JFC] How is Heathenry contributing to the re-emergence of polytheism in the West? And what is this polytheism like? How might it be like and unlike the polytheism of the ancient past and the polytheistic continuity of other world religions?

I am especially interested in how Heathenry changes the daily life and practices of people in the real world. How does Heathen practice and ritual create new networks—religious, social, economic—that build more sustainable ways of life? Scholars such as Barbara Davies and Rune Hjarnø Rasmussen are exploring these areas in their work.

As Heathen culture continues to change, scholars like Jennifer Snook are helping us to see into the diversity of the Heathen world, looking at how Heathenry manifests in different political spheres and flows into other subcultures. More work could be done on the permutations of Heathen identity.

We need to learn more about the influence of the internet on Heathenry. Scholars such as Ross Downing have just begun to explore the complex forms that Heathenry is taking online.  

Stephanie Schnurbein and other scholars have done a lot of work in uncovering and explicating the völkisch and Traditionalist tributaries to the contemporary confluence of far-right racism and violence. There is still work to be done in understanding this.

[EDW] Are you continuing to pursue research into Heathenry or are you switching focus to other topics? Have you any forthcoming projects that we should be keeping an eye out for?

[JFC] My ongoing research into Heathenry looks at how certain groups have propagated a white supremacist and nationalist agenda in recent years. In this vein, my chapter “Performing ‘American Völkisch’” is included in the recently published book Paganism and Its Discontents: Enduring Problems of Racialized Identity (Holli S. Emore, Jonathan M. Leader, editors, Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2020). I am also presenting work at the American Academy of Religion along these lines. At the 2020 AAR I presented to the New Religious Movements Unit on “White Nationalism and the Performance of Religion in Heathenism” which looked at Heathen internet memes and racist radicalization. For the upcoming 2021 AAR, I along with other scholars of Heathenry will be presenting to the Pagan Studies and the Religion and Ecology units on the impact of blood and soil ideology in Heathenry. Over the years, the AAR has played an important role in my research process and scholarly life.  I have valued and benefited from the hospitality of the Pagan Studies group and the New Religious Movements group as spaces to present research and to refine my work.

In addition to Heathenry, since moving to the Appalachian region, I have a growing interest in Appalachian religion. I am hoping to pull together a project on Paganism in Appalachia in the near future.

[EDW] Thank you very much for this additional insight into your work, Dr Calico, and I look forward to your future research on the Pagans of Appalachia!

Thursday, 15 July 2021

An Interview with Dr Kaarina Aitamurto

Today, I have an interview with Dr Kaarina Aitamurto, the head of training at the Aleksanteri Institute, which is the Finnish Centre for Russian and East European Studies at the University of Helsinki. Dr Aitamurto is a specialist in the study of religion in Russia, with her current work exploring the role of Muslim migrant minorities living in that country. Her previous research project, which resulted in her PhD thesis, delved into the Rodnoverie, or ‘Native Faith’ movement in Russia, a form of modern Paganism that seeks to recreate the religious system adhered to by pre-Christian Russians. On that subject she is the author of Paganism, Traditionalism, Nationalism: Narratives of Russian Rodnoverie (Routledge, 2016) and, with Scott Simpson, also co-edited the important Modern Pagan and Native Faith Movements in Central and Eastern Europe (Acumen, 2013), both of which should really be required reading for anyone studying modern Pagan religion. We talk about these research projects and how modern Paganism first attracted her interest.

[EDW] Your main research has been on the Russian religion of Rodnoverie, or ‘Native Faith.’ For readers unfamiliar with this tradition, could you give us a brief overview of what it is?

[KA] The term Rodnoverie comes from the Russian words rodnaya vera (“native faith”) and refers to a religion that is based on pre-Christian Slavic spirituality. The question about the terminology is actually quite complex and there seems to be a recent tendency to define Rodnoverie more narrowly as a distinct form of Paganism that does not even include all groupings that subscribe to the Slavic tradition in Russia.

While the origin of the movement is still debatable, there were groupings and authors who had begun to explore Paganism by the 1980s and which were able to become public after the collapse of the Soviet Union. There are many versions of modern Slavic native faith and continuous debates are conducted on who has the right to call themselves a representative of this tradition. Despite the differences, some common features can still be found. The ritual calendar is based on folkloric tradition with such celebrations as the midsummer festival, Kupala, and the winter solstice, Kolyada. In addition, some main deities, such as Perun, Veles and Mokosh, have their own days of celebration. The festivals usually take place in nature, in front of deity statues and around fire. The festivals are usually organised by the communities or umbrella-communities, of which there are a couple. Naturally, there are also solitary practitioners who do not participate in the communal festivals.

As in many other Pagan religions, there are debates both about what we can know about the pre-Christian tradition and how faithfully it should be followed today. Though the pictures from the festivals of Rodnoverie communities often resemble each other, the ritual practices – like the theology – are continuously developing and negotiated. An interesting feature (that I actually noticed only after starting to study Islam in Russia) is the central role of literature and reading in Rodnoverie. Although it is a relatively small movement,* there is much literature published on the topic. This is perhaps not so surprising, because some studies suggest that people with higher education and students are overrepresented among Russia’s Pagan community. The majority of Rodnovers also live in cities and scholars of the topic agree that there are more men than women in the movement.

*= there are no exact numbers but the estimations I have recently encountered usually suggest at least two hundred thousand people.

[EDW] Did you have a pre-existing interest in modern Paganism prior to embarking on your research with Russian Rodnover communities in 2004? What was it that sparked your interest in the topic and led you to conduct PhD research on it?

[KA] Back in the late 1990s, when I was thinking about a topic for my masters’ thesis, I found a newspaper article about Wicca, which it described as a feminist women’s religion. This intrigued me and I eventually based my thesis work on interviews with Finnish Wiccans. I became so fascinated with the topic that I decided to continue studying it in my doctoral thesis, although this time in Russia. The country was somewhat familiar to me, and I had already learned the Russian language at school. I was aware that there were Wiccans in Russia but there were hardly any references or publications on the topic.

I started my research through esoteric bookstores and stalls as well as inquiring if my Russian colleagues knew any Wiccan groups in Russia. Every way I turned there were hardly any signs of Wicca and questions about the topic usually led to ethnic Slavic Paganism. To be honest, I was initially a bit reluctant to change the topic of my research because it was the feminist aspect of Wicca that had appealed to me. In contrast, contemporary Slavic Paganism seemed emphatically patriarchal and conservative. Moreover, infrequently it was linked to intolerant nationalism. In many respects, this ethnic Paganism with its emphasis on warrior spirit and admiration of masculinity seemed to represent an opposite to the kind of feminist spirituality that had originally drawn me to Paganism.  However, gradually I became captivated by Slavic Paganism. First, I have always loved Russian culture and folklore so, of course, being able to gain a new perspective on it was fascinating. Secondly, it was intriguing to notice that Rodnoverie contained many similar features to the forms of Paganism I had encountered previously and which had initially drawn me to it: the emphasis on independent thinking and individual freedom, a connection to nature, the central role of aesthetics and play in religious practice.

[EDW] In your book, you describe encounters with Rodnovers who adhere to far-right political ideologies, a topic that you have written about elsewhere, as in your chapter for the recent Oxford Research Encyclopedias: Religion. Barring a few exceptions (most notably Mattias Gardell), such ideologies have tended to be avoided by a great deal of scholarly research on modern Paganism, at least in Western Europe and North America, but how significant do you think that they are for our understanding of modern Paganism as a global phenomenon?

[KA] While far-right and racist Pagans probably form a minority, and in some countries just a small fraction, of the Pagan scene, omitting these kinds of groups from the analysis of the global phenomenon would lead to both a biased portrayal and a partial understanding of it. The reasons why topics such as racism and nationalism are understudied in Western studies of Paganism are of course understandable. People often prefer to study things that they find fascinating and which they want others to know about too. This was indeed also my motive in choosing Wicca as the topic of my master’s thesis. Another probable reason is that there are still many prejudices regarding modern Paganism and that therefore many scholars feel it is their responsibility to evaporate rather than increase these. Having said that, the situation was almost the opposite in the Russian study of Paganism, especially in the 2000s; there, the majority of studies focused solely on ultra-nationalism, racism and anti-Semitism in Slavic Paganism. Admittedly, addressing these topics is important, especially considering what a huge problem racism is in Russian society. However, some studies also seemed to set out to demonstrate that there is not and cannot be reconstructionist Paganism without nationalist exclusions.

This kind of approach is anchored to the common misconception of religions as something that can be demarcated and revealed in some “pure” or “original” form. In reality, religions evolve, change and have countless interpretations. Christianity, for instance, can motivate both Crusades against “infidels” but also selfless acts of compassion. In a similar vein, Paganism can be understood and presented in several, even conflicting ways. In general, the attempts to find borders around particular religions often limit our understandings of them and exclude some aspect. A prominent example of this are the claims that some unpleasant phenomena are just misuse of religion for political purposes. I understand the desire to vindicate religions and their innocent adherents, but such an approach seems intellectually dishonest. It is true that some far-right groups use Pagan symbols and rhetoric very superficially, but none the less that is one of the manifestations of Paganism in our times. An interesting question is why one religious tradition, or the idea of it, gets translated differently in different contexts and by different actors.

[EDW] What has the response to your work been, both from Russian Rodnovers and other Pagans themselves, and from academics working on these subjects?

[KA] To be honest, I think I have been in a privileged situation because, as I mentioned before, so much of the early research on Russian Paganism took such a negative attitude toward it. Therefore, I have got the impression that many have valued my research as more neutral or objective. Of course, I have also received feedback regarding some mistakes or what someone has considered as misinterpretation, and I have valued this too.

In recent decades, the study of Paganism has diversified much and there are interesting studies on such varied topics as Pagan food culture or biographies of certain central thinkers. Although I am not very active in studying Paganism in Russia anymore, I have kept in contact with some of my colleagues and friends in that field. The situation in the study of minority and especially newer religions in Russia is quite delicate at the moment. For example, some prominent scholars have lost their jobs after publicly opposing the labelling of certain religions or groups as extremists (a label which, in Russia, results in them being banned). Despite this pressure, I greatly admire my Russian colleagues who have continued to write balanced analyses of contemporary Paganism. 

[EDW] With Scott Simpson, you also put together an important edited volume on Modern Pagan and Native Faith Movements in Central and Eastern Europe, which came out in 2013. How did this project come about and where do you think the study of modern Paganism in Central and Eastern Europe stands at the moment? Do you think that there is sufficient interaction between those working on Pagan religion in these regions and those working on it in Western Europe and North America?

[KA] The idea for that book came from James R. Lewis and when I started to look for possible contributors, I met Scott Simpson online. Back then, there were usually one or two scholars of Paganism in Central and East European countries and it was wonderful to be a part of the process when the networks between scholars began to emerge. In ten years, the study of Paganism in Central and Eastern Europe has advanced in “leaps and bounds”. There are more scholars and active networks. The basic idea of our book was to outline the history and the current situation of Paganisms in different countries. However, now this field of inquiry has moved on from just offering descriptions of different geographical areas into focusing on different aspects of Paganism and using different case studies to participate in larger debates, whether it is, for example, politics and Paganism or the debates about indigenous traditions. There is also much more contact and dialogue between Eastern European and Anglophone scholars of the topic, although of course there could always be more international collaboration.

[EDW] Have you explored much of the Pagan scene in Finland? What does that look like?

[KA] I have not actively followed the Finnish Pagan community since the 1990s. I thus have a very partial knowledge of it and am hesitant to say anything general. In the 1990s, Wicca had a very central role in the emergence of the new Pagan networks in Finland. Back then, some of the main discussions addressed such issues as the division between eclectic and traditional Wicca or whether philosophical Satanism can be counted as a part of Paganism. Reconstructionist groups drawing on local traditions were rather few and for many the idea of ethnic Finnish Paganism was associated with certain earlier, marginal far-right groupings. Since the early 2000s, the interest in pre-Christian traditions in Finland has grown. In 2014, the first modern Pagan group to successfully gain formal registration as a religious organization was Karhun Kansa (the People of the Bear), which follows the Finnish pre-Christian tradition.

[EDW] Your work has since moved on to look at the presence of Islam in Russia. How is that progressing and what outputs can we expect? Do you see interesting parallels, or very distinct differences, between the place of Islam and Rodnoverie in contemporary Russia?

[KA] My study of Islam in Russia has turned into more of a mosaic or quilt patch than a coherent research project. When I started to work on this topic I focused on the “obvious” cases of Islamic organizations and mosques. However, it soon turned out that Islam as a lived religion cannot be captured by interviewing the muftis of established organizations and reading the literature, published by the Muftiates or publishing houses, which are connected to them. This is of course the case regarding virtually all religions, but I would argue that this is especially pertinent regarding the Muslim community in Russia. In line with the political authoritarianization, there is a pressure to channel all Islamic religiosity to the hierarchical, state sanctioned Muftiates. At the same time, migration has rapidly diversified the Muslim community in big cities such as Moscow and St. Petersburg. Even though many local Muftiates make efforts to reach the new migrant community, they still often seem to represent a completely different world and are occasionally criticised for not always understanding the life or even the religious traditions of the migrants.

Although I had conducted some interviews with the representatives of migrant Muslim religious communities, I realised that I had very little understanding of how Islam configures in the everyday life of Muslims. Therefore, I was very happy to be invited to take part in the project “Migration, Shadow Economy and Parallel Legal Orders in Russia” that was conducted between 2016 and 2019. Religion was not the focus of the project, but in our interviews with Central Asian migrants living in Moscow we also included questions about religiosity. I am definitely not an expert on Islam among Central Asian migrants in Russia, but this fieldwork offered me a new perspective on Islamic religiosity in the European part of the country. I am at the moment in the process of writing an article on the basis of my fieldwork, but I think that in future, I will focus more on the publicly available material on Islam while also using the insights I have gained. A fascinating topic is, for example, how the established Muftiates and mosques seek to integrate migrants into their community and how they perceive them.

The reason why I have decided to relinquish or at least minimise the role of fieldwork and interviews is the precarious situation of Islamic actors or Muslims in general, especially of migrant background, in contemporary Russia. For example, although in our interviews in Moscow we asked about such sensitive topics as corruption and harassment by the police, often the questions that scared the respondents most were whether they attended mosques often and whether religious networks provided them support in their everyday life. This can be explained by the fact that under the auspices of its anti-terrorist policies the government has implemented ruthless repression of religious activists. However, I had already noticed that even some Russian representatives of the established organizations preferred to repeat the official rhetoric about the respected position of Islam in Russia rather than address certain challenges faced by the community. Therefore, I concluded that the ethical challenges of ensuring that no harm or discomfort would be caused to the people who are being studied might prove too demanding. Getting proper access to migrant communities is not impossible for an outsider and I have some brilliant Russian colleagues who have produced fascinating ethnographic studies among these groups in recent years. However, that would require much time on site and unfortunately, I do not have the opportunity for that at the moment.

In many respect, Islam and contemporary Paganism are on the opposite ends of the spectrum. Paganism is connected to Russian nationalism and in this way to the “majority,” while Islam is increasingly often the target of nationalist rhetoric and Muslims are associated with negative portrayals of migrants. At the same time, Islam is one of the four so-called “traditional religions” in Russia, the representatives of which regularly appear in stately events and have meetings with the President, while Paganism can be argued to belong to the group of new religious movements, which are still often labelled sects. In their own ways, both religions are thus infrequently associated with social problems and consequently are in a precarious position. The similarities and differences in the challenges these two religions face and the way they respond to them certainly seem to beg for a closer look. In fact, just before the Coronavirus pandemic I participated in a conference panel in which we analysed the use of expertise in those cases where religious minorities like Muslims and Pagans have been persecuted for extremism. The misuse of anti-extremist laws is a very topical issue in Russia and I would like to address that in future too.

[EDW] Dr Aitamurto, thank you so much for this fascinating insight into your work. I wish you the very best in your future research.

Tuesday, 20 April 2021

An Interview with Dr. Amy Hale

Today’s interview is with Dr Amy Hale, an anthropologist and folklorist based in Atlanta, Georgia who has published on a range of topics since the early 2000s, including modern Celtic identity in Cornwall, esoteric intersections with right-wing politics, and the overlap between esotericism and art. Her recent book, Ithell Colquhoun: Genius of the Fern Loved Gully (Strange Attractor, 2020), represents the most in-depth study of the eponymous English artist and occultist who made Cornwall her home and is a must-read for anyone interested in that area. She is also the co-chair of the Contemporary Pagan Studies Section of the American Academy of Religion (AAR) and sits on the editorial board of both Correspondences: Journal for the Study of Esotericism and the Black Mirror Research Network. We talk about Colquhoun, the growing body of research on occultism and the arts, and the place of the “independent scholar” in academia. 

[EDW] Your PhD thesis in Folklore and Mythology, which you completed at the University of California, Los Angeles in 1998, was devoted to modern Celtic identity in Cornwall, a county (and, in some views, a nation) in the southwest of Britain. What was it about Cornwall that attracted your interest and brought you all the way over the Atlantic to conduct research?

[AH] People are surprised to discover that my interest in Cornwall is not the result of having any Cornish ancestry. I don’t have any that I know of.  My interest started out as a series of intellectual and theoretical questions which eventually transitioned into an emotional connection. I had been interested in modern Celtic identities since high school. A lot of people interested in Celtic culture and history are drawn to the romance of the mythology and imagined pagan (and Pagan) pasts, but that was never my thing except for very briefly as a teen. I wanted to explore the core of what makes people so obsessed with the idea of “The Celts”, although I wasn’t sure what that meant or where my journey might take me.

I majored in Anthropology as an undergraduate and for my BA thesis I conducted independent research in Galway, Ireland looking at how Irish mythology was informing contemporary Irish identities on the eve of the coalescing of the European Union (this was 1989-90).  It was during this time that I realized that the stories so often told about the continuity and spread of Celtic peoples since the Bronze Age were fiction.  The reality of the idea of the Celts is fragmented, modern and in many ways the result of a mix of colonialism and efforts at cultural taxonomies that frequently served political interests.

In 1994 I did exploratory fieldwork toward my PhD in Cornwall, staying with Cornish language speakers and cultural activists. Cornwall was a site of interest for me because there is still so much (mainly external) dissention about Cornwall’s Celtic identity and the legitimacy of Cornish ethnicity.  I was utterly blown away and very moved by the complexity of the cultural and political situation there. Likely because I’m an American I get a very different picture of the Cornish/English cultural dynamic that is invisible to many English people in particular.  I ended up moving over in 1995 and stayed until 2001, finishing my PhD in 1998 and eventually working as Lecturer in Contemporary Celtic Studies for the Institute of Cornish Studies at the University of Exeter.

My interest continues to be in the political and economic circumstances under which Celtic identities coalesce, change, and develop. I still see Celtic cultures through the lens of the dynamics of colonialism and economic and cultural marginalization, and that is the context which informs my research. In my view Cornwall is still the most interesting place to explore the dynamic terrains of modern Celtic culture.  It is never boring, and I don’t think I will ever not have a connection with Cornwall and the Cornish people.  

[EDW] You have also been one of the comparatively few scholars to have published research on modern Druidry, having an article on the subject in the Cornish Studies journal. Was Druidry part of the main theme of your thesis or a side-project that spun out of it?

[AH] Druidry has never been a primary subject of interest for me, but in the study of the development of modern Celtic identities you can’t escape Druids, as Ronald Hutton’s work so clearly shows. It’s really unavoidable. Druids are the blank slate upon which all sorts of Celtic fantasies can be projected, whether it’s the idea of an ancient pre-Christian priesthood of a nature-based religion, the politicized symbol of the shared cultural substrate of an imagined once unified Britain, or the missing link between a nativist, homegrown British Paganism and Christianity. Modern Druidic organizations, both spiritual and cultural, (by which I mean the Gorseddau of Wales, Cornwall and Brittany) have become important points of focus and networking for modern Celtic identities.  This can take the form of promoting the use of Celtic language in the case of the Gorseddau, or the way in which many spiritual Druids focus on environmentalism, which has been widely believed to be a “Celtic” value. Even though these organizations differ widely in their aims, we can still compare them and see how people variously understand the idea of a Celtic cultural legacy.   

[EDW] During the 2000s, you were involved in the Journal for the Academic Study of Magic (JASM), which had been co-founded by Alison Butler and Dave Evans [interviewed here back in 2012] and which was one of the first peer-reviewed journals to focus on esotericism and related topics. You contributed to the second volume and then co-edited the fifth (and final) edition of the journal; how did you get involved in this project? What was it like working on British esotericism when there really was little institutional framework for supporting such research topics?

[AH] In many ways I think my work with JASM helped to realign my career more toward the study of esotericism and away from a professional alignment with Celtic Studies, which in the US is a rather limiting and restrictive field mostly focused on medieval literature and philology.  I became involved when the late Dave Evans, who was a close friend at the time, was having trouble managing the editorship.  I offered to help, and Susan Johnston Graf and I took over the editing duties for the final edition.  JASM was a very ambitious project, working to include scholarship on modern practice as well as including an empirical and historical approach, which at the time characterized much of the European scholarship on the esoteric.  I am sad that it couldn’t be sustained and I think there could be a lot of promise in another journal project of this kind, although Correspondences comes close. [The founding editors of Correspondences were interviewed here in 2013].  JASM also generated a lively research network for a while and the online discussion used to be very vibrant when there were fewer opportunities for that sort of interaction.  Although it still technically exists as a mailing list, it has become greatly diminished.

I would really love to see more institutional support in the UK for solid academic work on esotericism and Pagan topics. It’s not that it isn’t out there, but there is no journal or organization that reflects British approaches in the way that I feel JASM did.  I have always believed that British scholarship is quite creative and innovative and, in many ways, pushes boundaries that American programs just don’t. Some of the approaches you find in British universities, Cultural Studies for example, would lend themselves well to the study of esotericism.  A solid British institutional presence would genuinely enrich the field. I know this likely sounds odd coming from an American scholar, but I still feel that the UK in many ways remains my scholarly and professional home base.

[EDW] Where does your interest in modern Paganism and occultism come from? Was this an interest you had had since childhood or something that emerged while you were engaged in your PhD research?

[AH] It was absolutely an interest from my youth but I had never anticipated that it would become such a central part of my wider research profile.  But as I noted with Druidry, you can’t really look closely at modern Celtic identities and not end up dealing with Paganism and the occult.

Sure, I was a weird kid and interested in witchcraft at a very young age. I had friends, but like many young people who are drawn to esoteric topics, I was certainly an eccentric child and I spent much of my free time seeking out wooded areas on my bike, having imaginative adventures. I discovered the occult in high school when I started leveraging my eccentricities to more productive social ends.  I was a walking cliché, with wild blonde Stevie Nicks hair, listening to a ridiculous amount of Led Zeppelin. My mom bought me [Aleister] Crowley’s Magick in Theory and Practice when I was 16. I don’t think she knew what she was buying, to be honest but she wanted to support my interests. I was raised in a very confirmed and explicitly atheist household, but my parents were also tolerant, inquisitive, and smart. They provided a critical framework for me around religion and spirituality that I retain to this day.

This was around the same time that I started becoming obsessed with all things romantically Celtic, and I got a hold of some esoteric Arthuriana from the 19th and early 20th century which was republished in the mid-1980s. Those became a huge focus of interest at the time. In fact, I still have a huge soft spot for the all the weird contexts of esoteric Arthuriana and would love to do a major project on it one day. I didn’t focus on Paganism academically in my undergraduate curriculum to any degree, but it so deeply intersects with some of the ways that historical ideas of the Celts have informed modern Cornwall that Paganism became an integral part of my PhD research. As time went on, Paganism and the occult became more strongly featured in my work in general. Now I’m the Co-Chair of the Contemporary Pagan Studies section of the American Academy of Religion, but I suspect that is less because of my research history and more because I am a sucker with some slick administrative talents.

[EDW] Your new book, Ithell Colquhoun: Genius of the Fern Loved Gully (Strange Attractor, 2020) explores the Surrealist artist and occultist who spent much of her life in Cornwall. Can you tell us a little about who she was and how you came to be fascinated by her story?

[AH] Ithell Colquhoun (1906-1988) was a Surrealist artist and occultist, and I firmly believe she was one of the most prolific and engaged woman occult practitioners of the 20th century.  She was a visual artist whose archives contain over 5000 paintings and drawings. She was a novelist, essayist and poet who wrote early Earth Mysteries style travelogues on sacred sites in Cornwall and Ireland in the 1950s.  She moved to Cornwall part time in the 1940s, full time in 1959, and Cornwall was a central part of her own engagement with her own romantic Celtic Spirituality.  Unusually, though, she also had a great deal of respect for Cornish culture and the Cornish language, and while she was not really a Cornish activist she advocated for some level of autonomy for Cornwall and the preservation of Cornish culture.

Studying Colquhoun was a natural for me as her work and interests were a perfect intersection of my own.  She is emblematic of the spiritual seeker who comes to Cornwall for spiritual reasons, but she also had a nascent understanding of the political sensibilities that drive ethnic Celtic political movements. A lot of this was likely inspired in her by the work of W. B. Yeats who shared these conceptual traits in his life and work.  The complexity of her work is utterly boggling and she still keeps me busy.

[EDW] There seems to have been a growth in interest in the connections between art and occultism over the past decade, a topic that you have explored in several of your publications. What do you see as the importance of this area of research and what potential does it offer?

[AH] I think the strong focus on art that we have seen in scholarship about the occult in the past decade or so has helped to provide an accessible introduction to scholarship about esotericism.  Art is tangible. It provides a way to demonstrate how esoteric and occult principles are used in a way that people can see and maybe even have a personal response to. In a way literature provides similar points of discussion. What is changing is that in the past decade we are seeing a movement away from a discussion of esoteric symbolism in the arts to the role of practice and worldview of the artist.  Scholars are no longer fixated on tracing the freaky social networks and “weird” interests of the artist, which was a dominant approach in the past.  We are now looking at how their art becomes a vehicle for spiritual practice, and how esoteric ideas shape and inform a wider body of work. Art becomes a way to discuss practice without jumping straight into ritual, which frankly some scholars still find a challenge to talk about. It’s been a safe gateway subject and as such a very popular topic. Also, let’s be honest, the occult has produced a lot of art and literature! Not all of it is great, but some certainly is.

I do have some concern, though, that the topic is in danger of being played out. There have been a lot of books and conferences devoted to it and I think that while there will always be productive inquiry in this area, as a field I’d like to see us branch out a bit. I’d love to see more focus on topics like place and space, aesthetic and style, intersections with science and medicine and yes, ritual.  Having said that, I am still finding interesting and productive angles in my work with contemporary artists especially in terms of performance, space and reception, which feature in some upcoming publications.

[EDW] Another of the topics that you have published on is the intersection of the modern Pagan and Earth Mysteries milieus with right-wing politics, especially in forms that have been influenced by Traditionalism. How did you come to pursue this line of enquiry and what has been the response from within the Pagan and esoteric communities?

[AH] Again, this focus emerged from the double headed beast that is the study of contemporary Celtic identities. A huge core of my work is about how people construct and perform their identities in various contexts, and this led me early on in my graduate career into a deep dive into the relationship between folklore and nationalism, which as many people know, isn’t the prettiest of tales. Nativist spiritualities ride the ethnonationalism line pretty tightly, so the right-wing element has always been a historical feature of them. Ithell Colquhoun was a Traditionalist, as was W.B. Yeats, and these two were hardly alone in their understanding and embrace of ethnicized spiritual identity.  However, Traditionalism as a discrete and historical philosophical movement is still not particularly well known.  I suggest Mark Sedgwick’s Against the Modern World: Traditionalism and the Secret Intellectual History of the Twentieth Century for a good introduction.

During my early research into Colquhoun, I noticed similar right-wing, nativist tendencies in both the writings of John Michell and in a lot of the rhetoric around the Archangel Michael in British New Age and Earth Mysteries culture and I wrote articles on both those topics. A decade ago, a lot of people thought I was making a mountain out of a molehill, and some people got genuinely upset with my research into John Michell and the way he has been claimed and refashioned by the radical right. I lost friends over that one. But the political landscape has changed so much since then, that people are now very hungry to understand what the relationship between Paganism, occultism and the radical right is, and how it got that way. The seeds have been there all along, but because a lot of Pagans, especially in the US, see themselves as progressive they are deeply unsettled by right-wing applications of their values. In fact, many of these values are just as legitimately emblematic of conservative values, such as environmental preservation or a love of folk culture. While I know the nature of my research interests in nativist- inspired spiritualities will always have me encountering the radical right to some degree, it’s a topic that I need to take a break from every now and then. Working with contemporary artists has proved to be a restorative balm for the soul because the political research is pretty dark.

[EDW] You operate as an independent scholar and have run classes helping PhD students consider options other than professional academia. What do you see as the role of the independent scholar in research, especially when it comes to the study of modern Paganism and occultism?

[AH] Permit me to jump on my soapbox a minute about the phrase “independent scholar”. I’m still not really comfortable with the term.   In academic circles it generally means someone is non-affiliated with an academic institution, but not having an academic affiliation comes with its own problems when operating in academic settings. It carries a stigma. We all know it, and no one likes to talk about it. People quietly wonder what is wrong with you. Independent scholars are extremely under supported. I can’t apply for major grants.  I can’t be a research lead. I struggle for access to research libraries and academic publications.  For many people conferences are outside their reach. Some colleagues won’t consider you for collaboration. For people seeking academic jobs it’s almost impossible to stay competitive.

I taught for 15 years, and when I became a higher ed consultant I had to drop all my affiliations as a condition of the job. Then I retired from that job to focus on my writing and now I’m truly an “independent scholar” because I’m not anything else, but I’m not sure this is the best label for everyone.  I believe strongly that we should be encouraging people to pursue other careers outside academia while still being part of scholarly conversations and production if they so choose, and people should be supported in this choice.  If those non-academic careers remain invisible to the scholarly community because people are labelled as “independent scholars” it doesn’t help to support or legitimize other career paths, which is something we all need to be doing. Not everyone wants to be part of the professoriate or work in a university.

I think it would be great if our academically employed colleagues would help create better conditions for non-affiliated scholars to feel valued, and support greater access to research collections and professional libraries.  It would also be great if more institutions would allow the non-affiliated to apply for grants!  In small and marginal fields like Pagan Studies, Celtic Studies or the study of esotericism, there may well be even more scholars without an academic home who would benefit from collegiality and support. While I would like to say that independent scholars can have a role of providing critique or innovation because they are not constrained by the needs of academic production, I think for many this is not the case because they don’t have the luxury to work outside such a rigidly defined system or to take chances with their work.

Jumping down off the soapbox, though, those of us who are genuinely comfortable as scholars not working within academic institutions do have enormous potential to become public scholars, take on creative projects, and be innovative in the research questions we take on. I want people to read my work! I can write about what I like for whatever publishers I choose and my work is more creative than it has ever been.  I personally am very happy with where I am at this stage in my career, but I also admit I’m very privileged. 

[EDW] Have you got any projects on the horizon that we should be keeping an eye out for?

[AH] Absolutely!  I am quite thrilled about a collection coming out with Palgrave that I edited, Essays on Women in Western Esotericism: Beyond Seeresses and Sea Priestesses. No publication date yet, but likely late 2021, early 2022. I have a piece on the occult performance art of Barry William Hale coming out in a summer edition of the journal Correspondences, which I’m pretty excited about. I’m also working on an edition of Ithell Colquhoun’s magical essays, and returning to a big work on Cornwall. There’s a lot going on and I’m pretty excited about it.

[EDW] Dr Hale, thank you for taking part in this interview; I look forward to reading your future endeavours!

Saturday, 3 April 2021

An Interview with Dr. Manon Hedenborg White

Today, I am interviewing Dr Manon Hedenborg White, a postdoctoral researcher at Södertörn University in Sweden. Dr Hedenborg White is a specialist in the study of Thelema, the religion founded by famous occultist Aleister Crowley, on the subject of which she has written an important recent monograph, The Eloquent Blood: The Goddess Babalon and the Construction of Femininities in Western Esotericism (Oxford University Press, 2020). She has also co-edited special issues of both The Pomegranate: The International Journal of Pagan Studies and Aries: Journal for the Study of Western Esotericism and contributed chapters to volumes including Magic and Witchery in the Modern West and Controversial New Religions. We discuss her new book, the Mexican folk saint Santa Muerte, and the increasing scholarly attention being paid to gender within esotericism.

[EDW] Thelema is not a particularly well-known religion, even among scholars of new religious movements, and Aleister Crowley himself is often misunderstood and even demonised. For that reason, could you give readers a very basic introduction to what Thelema is.

[MHW] Thelema (Greek for “will”) is the religion founded in 1904 by Aleister Crowley. Its foundational document is The Book of the Law (or Liber AL vel Legis), a text Crowley held was dictated to him by a discarnate being named Aiwass. The central maxim of Thelema is “Do what thou wilt shall be the whole of the Law” and the related “Love is the law, love under will”. Rather than an injunction to follow each impulsive whim or desire, this refers to what Crowley described as the “true Will” — the unique purpose of each life, which it is incumbent on each individual to discover and fulfil. The Book of the Law (and Crowley’s later interpretations thereof) suggests a dialectical ontology, centring on the generative coupling of the goddess Nuit, representing limitless space, and her consort Hadit, the infinitely condensed life-force of each individual. Their ecstatic union generates Ra-Hoor-Khuit, a manifestation of the Egyptian god Horus. This is important as The Book of the Law also heralds the advent of a new age in the spiritual evolution of humanity (with Crowley as its prophet), which Crowley later identified as the Aeon of Horus, and which he believed would be characterised by radical social transformation, the union of the spiritual and material, and a focus on individual liberation.

Crowley’s system of Magick combined ceremonial magic in the style of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn with yogic techniques he learned while travelling in India, Ceylon, and Burma. After joining the initiatory fraternity Ordo Templi Orientis and being made head of its British section in 1912, Crowley also began experimenting systematically with sexual magic, and came to view sexuality as a supremely potent magical force. Crowley has frequently been demonised due to his advocacy of sexual freedom – and not least the fact that he was openly bisexual – as well as his liberal use of drugs and engagement with various forms of social and religious transgression. Of course, many of the ideas he espoused relating to sexual liberalism and individual self-development are much more mainstream today, so I think it’s fair to say that Crowley was ahead of his time in many ways.

[EDW] Where does your interest in occultism come from? Is this something that you’ve had from childhood/young adulthood or did it develop while you were at university?

[MHW] I’ve held this interest since childhood, though it took many years for it to take form. When I was very young, my grandfather used to read to me from a children’s book of Greek mythology, which I adored. When playing make-believe with my friends, I’d adopt the names of Greek goddesses or mythological women like Ariadne and Atalanta. When I was five or six years old, my father introduced me to his Thoth Tarot deck (the tarot deck co-created by Crowley and the artist Frieda Harris), which we used to play around with and draw cards from. Growing up, I was fascinated by “fringe” religious movements and belief systems, and was attracted to occultism, but didn’t have a context for it at all — none of my friends held similar interests, so I mostly explored magical worlds in fiction and films (though I briefly ran a secret society of my own – the Order of the Mistletoe – complete with degrees and initiatory pledges, which I recruited my siblings into). I devoured anything I could find that pertained to witches, vampires, demons, secret societies, arcane rites, or ancient paganisms, and wrote short stories and spin-offs to my favourite novels. Donna Tartt’s The Secret History exerted a huge fascination, as did Marion Z. Bradley’s The Mists of Avalon, and anything related to ancient Egypt.

I was also fascinated by stories about pacts with the Devil, watching Polanski’s The Ninth Gate in my teens. It became (and remains) an instant favourite. Like many people in my field (or so I’ve heard), I remember thinking that being an occult “book detective” (like the film’s protagonist, played by Johnny Depp) would be a dream gig! But it wasn’t until I began attending university that I realised this was something I could seriously pursue, and which could even turn into a profession. I studied social anthropology during my first semester, but quickly moved on to history of religions as this seemed to be the way to go if one wanted to pursue PhD studies around an esoteric topic (which I decided halfway into my first semester at university that I wanted to do). Though Lucifer hasn’t materialised before me on any of my research trips (at least not yet), my teenage self would have been over the moon to learn that she would get to sift through arcane manuscripts and study magical rituals for a living. 

[EDW] Related to the previous question, what led you to choose the specific PhD topic that you pursued? Did the topic shift over the course of your research?

[MHW] From the outset of my academic studies, I was interested in the nexus of (Western) esotericism, gender, and sexuality. One of my earliest undergraduate papers focused on a comparison between the Virgin Mary and the Thelemic goddess Babalon, who appears in Crowley’s visionary record of 1909 and is inspired by his favourable re-interpretation of the Whore of Babylon from the Book of Revelation. This project subsequently turned into my first independently authored peer-review article (published in Swedish in the journal Aura in 2011), and – gradually – into a PhD project proposal on the changing construction of femininities and feminine sexuality in the discourse around the goddess Babalon from Crowley until today. I was fascinated by the way in which a biblical antagonist could be reshaped as an emblem of divine femininity in the early-twentieth century, and – especially – the ways in which it seemed to challenge pervasive notions of femininity and feminine sexuality in wider society around that time. In the early twentieth century, even feminists mostly tended to focus their political efforts in the area of sexuality on protecting women from sexual harm and damage — and won crucial political victories in doing so. But there were few who actively and unapologetically celebrated female sexual desire – and especially outside of a monogamous, heteronormative context – so it was quite a radical move for Crowley and his followers at this time to envision the divine feminine in the form of the whore goddess Babalon, celebrating the free expression of sexuality in all its forms, for all genders. I wanted to understand what this symbolic reconfiguration meant for the understanding of femininity and women’s roles, and how it evolved over the twentieth century and up until today in the interface with feminist and queer thought (which have impacted the contemporary occult landscape in many ways). The end result – my dissertation – remained relatively faithful to the original idea in terms of topic and materials, though my theoretical framework evolved considerably, and came to incorporate theorisation on femininities, femme, and sex radical feminist perspectives that I hadn’t considered to begin with. One of my PhD supervisors, Professor Ulrika Dahl (Uppsala University), is a trailblazer in the field of critical femininity studies and was instrumental to bringing these tools to my awareness. The work of feminist theorists such as Luce Irigaray, Mimi Schippers, Rosi Braidotti, Ann Cvetkovich, and Ulrika herself has been absolutely indispensable to me in learning to think about femininities – in the plural – beyond rigid binaries of essentialism/constructivism, both as symbolic constructs and modes of being that are not predetermined either by a specific biological morphology nor by heterosexuality.

[EDW] As part of your research you’ve placed quite an emphasis on Thelemites other than Crowley, including those whose most significant work took place after Crowley’s death (Jack Parsons, Marjorie Cameron, Kenneth Grant etc). Although there are others who have done this (namely Martin P. Starr and Henrik Bogdan), academic discussion has primarily focused on Crowley himself rather than on his followers. Where do you think scholarship stands when it comes to Thelema beyond Crowley?

[MHW] The study of (Western) esotericism is still fairly young in an academic context, so of course there are still a lot of gaps in what has been researched. I mean, we still lack solid, academic biographies for many of the foundational figures of modern occultism, not to mention their disciples! Within the last few decades, there have been major advances in the study of Crowley and Thelema, but of course there is still work to be done, not least in terms of situating the ideas of Crowley and the other Thelemites within their historical, cultural, and social contexts. Crowley is such a colourful character, whose oeuvre and life story are so rich with possibilities for scholarly exploration that he sometimes tends to overshadow those around him. But of course, religious or esoteric movements are rarely the sole creation of a singular individual. I think there is something to be said for viewing early Thelema not solely as Crowley’s invention, but as the product of a social milieu wherein others participated and made meaningful contributions. Martin P. Starr’s The Unknown God: Wilfred T. Smith and the Thelemites (Teitan Press, 2003) is a great example of this, as is Aleister Crowley and Western Esotericism (eds. Henrik Bogdan and Martin P. Starr, Oxford University Press, 2012), which also shows how Crowley’s ideas have been developed in later forms of esotericism. Going forward, I hope to see more of this, in addition to sociological and ethnographic scholarship on Thelema (as well as other forms of esotericism) in a contemporary context, showing how Thelemic practices and beliefs have evolved over time in the interface with other forms of esotericism as well as social and political movements.

[EDW] Your thesis combined historical analysis with ethnographic work among contemporary Thelemites, especially in the United States; if I understand correctly, that makes you one of the first scholars to publish research based on ethnographic work among Thelemites. How were you received among these Thelemites and subsequently how have Thelemites (and other Crowley-oriented occultists) responded to the publication of The Eloquent Blood?

[MHW] My experience doing fieldwork among contemporary Thelemites was overwhelmingly positive. My interlocutors were a very well-spoken, easy-going crowd, with a great sense of humour and a genuine interest in academic research on their tradition. I am tremendously grateful for their time and input, and not least the help I received in accessing unpublished archival sources, which has been invaluable to me. Many of those I got to know during my fieldwork remain my good friends. I am also very happy to say that the general response to my book from the Thelemic community and beyond has been very positive: many Thelemite readers (as well as other esoteric practitioners) have reached out to me with positive feedback, and I frequently receive speaking invitations from various branches of the Thelemic community.

Of course, there have also been critical comments: for some readers, mere mention of words such as “gender”, “feminism”, or “Judith Butler” seems to provoke indignation. Conversely, I have also been accused of being anti-feminist as I am seen as defending a “stereotypical” or passive femininity. It’s true — things like lipstick, high heels, garters, and sexual availability do figure in many (but of course not all) esotericists’ rituals, artistic renditions, and imaginings of Babalon. I don’t see this as inherently problematic or oppressive to women, and I take seriously the ways in which such aesthetic styles and practices entail both receptivity and agency. Moreover, I don’t view it as my job as a scholar to rate or judge esoteric movements or practitioners according to my own personal standards of empowerment or liberation. To some, this reads as a betrayal of feminist ideals. I think this is telling — as I address in the book, femininity has often been seen as a problem, even within many feminist circles; as an artificial, debilitating mask that women must discard in pursuit of liberation. As a scholar, I find such readings of femininity too simplistic. Firstly, viewing femininity as something exclusively performed for the benefit of the male gaze marginalises queer feminine desire, and secondly, I feel it is important to consider the ways in which all gendered expressions are, to some extent, culturally constructed. Thirdly, vulnerability and restriction (as some conventionally “feminine” aesthetic styles may certainly connote!) do not preclude agency, and I am inspired by femme and sex radical theorists in this regard. I find these reader responses interesting, as they indicate how femininity is still a tender spot, something that incites disdain as well as desire. But most of all, I am happy to see all kinds of responses to the book as it means it is being read — this, to me, is the most gratifying thing of all.

[EDW] One of the most striking features of The Eloquent Blood is that it draws from theoretical perspectives rooted in critical theory, feminist philosophy, and related currents of thought. Although various historical works on Spiritualism and Theosophy have certainly been informed by women’s studies, generally speaking these theoretical approaches are not something we see a lot of in the study of esotericism; do you think that these sorts of approaches are going to have a much greater impact on the field going forward and what do you feel they are bringing to the table?

[MHW] It is difficult for me to answer this question succinctly as I think critical theory and gender and queer studies have tremendous potential for the study of esotericism. These paradigms have been essential to my development as a scholar, and my manner of thinking and asking questions about the topics that I study is completely informed by a critical approach to established categories and binaries. Gender and feminist theory allows us to think about very concrete things like: why were Theosophy and Spiritualism attractive to many first-wave feminists, while contemporary Satanism has tended to attract a higher number of men? How and why did early-modern alchemy function as a forum in which women alchemists were able to construct theories about gender that could challenge official notions of men’s and women’s social roles? What are the historical inspirations for the idea of gender as a polarity, as seen in the writings of late-nineteenth and early-twentieth-century writers on sexual magic, and what were the implications of these ideas? And why are young LGBTQ folks today turning towards – and creatively reformulating – currents and practices like astrology, witchcraft, and tarot? These, and countless other examples, demonstrate how questions of gender are not peripheral to the study of esotericism, but are central to the ways in which esoteric currents have taken form and developed over time.

The academic study of esotericism has often overlooked gender, resulting in frequent obscuration of the experiences and contributions of women and gender-nonconforming persons, but also to esoteric masculinities being under-examined. There has been much excellent research aimed at addressing this imbalance, especially in recent decades, and there will certainly be more — I am particularly looking forward to Professor Christine Ferguson (University of Stirling) and Dr. Tanya Cheadle’s (University of Glasgow) forthcoming special issue for Correspondences: Journal for the Study of Esotericism on “Masculinities, Sexualities, and Esotericism”. However, I often find that gender is still viewed as supplementary or “add-on” knowledge within the study of esotericism; as something that is primarily of relevance to those who are particularly interested in women, rather than something with the potential to challenge the way we think about esoteric currents, groups, and thinkers at a general and conceptual level. Given the historical marginalisation of women and femininities from hegemonic institutions of knowledge production and scientific rationality, the notion of esotericism as “rejected knowledge” (as pioneered by Wouter J. Hanegraaff) could productively be engaged from perspectives of gender. Conversely, a gender perspective can also highlight how esoteric epistemologies, while in some sense rejected from these institutions, have also reproduced hegemonic logics that have subordinated women, people of colour, and gender and sexual minorities. It is also interesting to note that historically, the marginalisation of Platonic worldviews coincident with the advent of Western modernity also paralleled with a gradual transition from a hierarchical model of gender to a model of biological, sexual dimorphism and complementarity. Thus, knowledge of the ways in which esotericism has developed in relation to the cultural mainstream also helps us understand changing notions of gender.

[EDW] You’ve just edited a special edition of Aries: Journal for the Study of Western Esotericism devoted to “Rethinking Aleister Crowley and Thelema.” Could you tell us a bit more about this?

[MHW] As noted, Crowley has attracted serious scholarly attention in the last few decades, but much fertile soil remains for scholarly interventions contextualising his ideas and those of his followers historically and culturally. With this special issue, I wanted to bring together a selection of essays that approach the study of Crowley and/or Thelema in novel ways. Christian Giudice (independent scholar) explores Crowley’s early poetry, proposing a re-evaluation of the British occultist as a genuine representative of British Decadence. Henrik Bogdan (University of Gothenburg) analyses the concept of God in Crowley’s magical writings, situating the latter within contemporary tensions of modernity, disenchantment, and disillusionment with organised religion. Matthew Fletcher (University of Bristol) examines Crowley’s The Book of Thoth (1944), linking Crowley’s decision to change the names of several tarot trumps to his wish to rid the tarot of Christian influences in favour of the tenets of Thelema. Deja Whitehouse (University of Bristol) traces Frieda, Lady Harris’s relationship with Crowley’s Thelema, thus providing new context for the collaborative relationship that birthed the Thoth Tarot. Finally, my own article explores the role of Crowley’s lover and disciple Leah Hirsig (1883–1975) through a Weberian lens, proposing an addition to Weber’s tripartite typology of authority in the form of “proximal authority” — authority ascribed to or enacted by a person based on their real or perceived closeness to a leader. It is my hope that the publication of this special issue will give rise to new discussions and approaches, and inspire further revisitation of familiar topics in novel ways.

[EDW] With Fredrik Gregorius, you also have an article in the journal Religions, looking at the uses of the Mexican folk saint Santa Muerte within the Anglo-American occult milieu. It’s a fascinating topic; how did you come to pursue it?

[MHW] This has been a fascination of mine for some time. It started while I was travelling in the U.S. in 2012. Visiting botánicas (stores selling religious goods, medicinal herbs, oils, perfumes, incenses, et cetera), especially in California and Texas, I increasingly came across statues and paraphernalia depicting a robed, Grim Reaper-esque figure — the Mexican folk saint Santa Muerte (literally “Saint Death” or “Holy Death”). Looking into the origins of this figure brought me to read R. Andrew Chesnut’s Devoted to Death: Santa Muerte, the Skeleton Saint (Oxford University Press, 2012), from which I learned that Santa Muerte is seen as an extremely powerful and non-judgmental miracle worker. Traditionally something of a patroness for marginalised or disenfranchised people in Mexico – women, the working classes, LGBTQ people, and sex workers, as well as for people involved in both sides of the drug war – she has become increasingly popular on both sides of the Mexico–U.S. border. Doing fieldwork among occult practitioners in the U.S., I came across Santa Muerte statues in the homes and ritual spaces of many of my interlocutors. I’ve also had the opportunity to visit and attend services in shrines to Santa Muerte in the U.S. and Mexico, including what is likely the most famous one — the Santa Muerte shrine in Tepito, Mexico City. I find the cult of Santa Muerte to be a fascinating example of lived religion and the ways in which it can function as a site of resistance, and it’s something I would love to research further at some point. Sadly, my current Spanish skills aren’t sufficient to do fieldwork in Mexico, but maybe someday?

[EDW] With Professor Christine Ferguson of the University of Stirling you launched the Esotericism, Gender, and Sexuality Network (ESOGEN) as part of the European Society for the Study of Western Esotericism (ESSWE) in 2019. Could you tell us more about the launch of this group and what you see as its role within the study of esotericism?

[MHW] Affiliated with the European Society for the Study of Western Esotericism, ESOGEN is a thematic network that aims to bring together research efforts around the nexus of esotericism, gender, and sexuality, and organise funding bids, conferences, and panels around these topics, and promote inter-disciplinary dialogue between scholars and students. Our inaugural event will be ESOGEN Symposium, an international one-day Zoom conference organised in collaboration with the Center for History of Hermetic Philosophy and Related Currents, taking place on April 16 this year. This event will feature paper presentations from around 20 MA and PhD students, as well as a keynote lecture by Christine. We will also be hosting a panel discussion at the next ESSWE conference (taking place in Cork, and scheduled for 2022) around the topic of Western esotericism, gender, and the creative arts.

[EDW] You are presently engaged in a postdoctoral project at Södertörn University on the subject of “Power through Closeness? Female Authority and Agency in a Male-Led New Religion” as part of which you were looking at Thelemite women Leah Hirsig, Jane Wolfe, and Marjorie Cameron. Can you tell us more about this new project?

[MHW] In a sense, the purpose of this project has been two-fold. Firstly, it has aimed to analyse 20th-century Thelema through the perspective of some of the women who were essential to its development: the Swiss-American music teacher Leah Hirsig (1883–1975), who was Crowley’s lover and disciple in the early 1920s, and co-founded his Abbey of Thelema at Cefalù, Sicily; the American silent film actress Jane Wolfe (1875–1958), who studied under Crowley at Cefalù and was integral to the establishment of Thelema in the U.S. in the 1930s and 1940s; and the artist, poet, and avant-garde icon Marjorie Cameron (1922–1995). To that end, I have been working with archival sources, mostly unpublished: diaries, letters, ritual descriptions, visionary records, and so on, in order to understand these women’s lives and esoteric practices at the intersection of gender, sexuality, and alternative religiosity. Secondly, the project utilises these women’s roles in Thelema as a starting point for an investigation of female religious authority. To that end, I’ve been drawing on scholarship on women in new religious movements more broadly, and have proposed an addition to Max Weber’s tripartite categorisation of authority: proximal authority, which I define as authority ascribed to or enacted by a person based on their real or perceived closeness to a leader. My hypothesis is that the category of proximal authority is particularly productive for understanding how women (and other potentially marginalised groups) navigate authority via close relationships, and in a future project I will be developing this terminology based on a broader range of case studies.

[EDW] Are there any new projects of yours in the pipeline that we should keep our eyes out for?

[MHW] Right now, I am involved in two book projects, both of which focus on women in 20th-century Thelema. With Dr. Christian Giudice, I am co-editing a volume entitled Women of Thelema, to be published by Kamuret Press, comprising a selection of historical essays on some of the most important women in the Thelemic tradition. With Professor Henrik Bogdan, I am working on an annotated edition of the magical diaries of Leah Hirsig, 1923–1925, which has been accepted for publication by Oxford University Press. This will be the first academic, annotated, and complete edition of Hirsig’s diaries from a crucial period of her life and magical career, and will feature a selection of contemporary letters as well as previously unpublished photographs.

[EDW] Dr Hedenborg White, thank you for this insight into your ongoing research. I wish you all the best for the future.