Thursday, 1 February 2018

Folkish Heathenry and Modern Satanism: My 2017 Publications

2017 was a busy year for me as my PhD research continued apace, and unfortunately several other projects, such as this blog, fell by the wayside somewhat. However, I was able to get a few academic publications out that I think demonstrate the increasing diversification of my research interests.

The Journal of Religion in Europe published my article on Northern Gods for Northern Folk: Racial Identity and Right-Wing Ideology among Britain’s Folkish Heathens”, itself based on a presentation first given at the Generation Hex: The Politics of Contemporary Paganism” conference held at Cambridge University in September 2015. This article was the first sustained exploration of Folkish Heathenry as it exists in Britain to be published in an academic form and hopefully offers a useful complement both to Mattias Gardell’s excellent work on Folkish Heathenry in the United States and to Robert Wallis and Jenny Blain’s research into Universalist Heathenry in Britain. I also hope that it serves as a timely reminder that although in the popular imagination modern Paganism is often stereotyped as a left-wing, ‘hippy-esque’ phenomenon, there are also modern Pagan groups of a decidedly right-wing and ethno-nationalist bent. The only way for scholars to really get to grips with modern Paganism as a contemporary milieu is to recognise this diversity of perspectives. This was my first publication to deal explicitly with the intersections of ‘religion and politics, a theme that I intend to pursue in further depth over coming years.

The second publication of note that I produced last year was a review essay put together for Correspondences: An Online Journal for the Academic Study of Western Esotericism, the excellent open-access journal put together by Aren Roukema, Jimmy Elwing, and (as book review editor) Egil Asprem. The review is titled Sympathy for the Devil: A Review of Recent Publications in the Study of Satanism and provides an overview of three good publications on the subject that have appeared in recent years. Moreover, after reviewing these tomes it also offers my own thoughts on the development of the field and some of the terminological and taxonomic issues it has thrown up.

In addition, Ive also had the privilege of reading and reviewing a range of books for such journals as the Religious Studies Review, Nova Religio: The Journal of Alternative and Emergent Religions, and Time and Mind: The Journal of Archaeology, Consciousness and Culture. Ive also brought out a couple of reviews for the Reading Religion website (here and here). Anyone unfamiliar with this site, which is run by the American Academy of Religion (AAR), should definitely check it out. Unlike most journals, Reading Religion makes its reviews of the latest publications in the study of religion freely available for all to read. Its a brilliant idea which will hopefully help to make scholarly research access to a far broader audience outside of the so-called ivory tower. I have recently had the honour of having been invited to join the sites editorial board, which is an exciting prospect. Hopefully, 2018 will prove to be as interesting and as productive.

Sunday, 23 October 2016

My Religious Studies Project Podcast and the ensuing debates

Back in June this year, Dr. Damon Lycourinos interviewed me for a podcast that has just appeared on the website of the Religious Studies Project (RSP), a fantastic site that brings together insights from a huge range of scholars studying religion. In this podcast, I offer “A Critical Introduction to the History, Beliefs, and Practices of Wiccans”, a new religious movement to which I have devoted a significant amount of scholarly attention over the past decade (and on the subject of which I have published a range of research articles and a recent book). The podcast is freely accessible and downloadable here, so I hope that you enjoy it!

The RSP has also published two written responses to my podcast interview, one from the independent scholar Race Mochridhe (here) and the other from the Reverend Dr. Patricia ‘Iolana (here). Mochridhe is a Traditionalist and ‘Iolana a Pagan and thus the pair offer significant insights into my work from their own perspectives, which obviously differ from my own secular approach. Both commentators raise some interesting issues, although I also think that they have misunderstood my arguments and theoretical approach to some extent, so I have tried to set the record straight in the Comments section. Still, it's great to see a debate developing!

Saturday, 27 August 2016

The Pomegranate, Nova Religio, and Material Religion: My recent publications on the study of modern Paganism

The past few weeks have witnessed the release of a number of my research articles (and a book review) in several peer-reviewed journals, all of which I hope will be of interest to those active within the field currently known as “Pagan studies”. They reflect my increasing diversification away from the study of modern Pagan Witchcraft and toward the study of other expressions of modern Pagan religiosity.

The first, and perhaps the most important, of these articles is titled “Theoretical, Terminological, and Taxonomic Trouble in the Academic Study of Contemporary Paganism: A Case for Reform”, and it appeared in the latest issue (volume 18, no 1) of The Pomegranate: The International Journal of Pagan Studies. It outlines my concerns about the state of the field as it currently exists, and then provides some suggestions for how these problems might be dealt with; one of my major suggestions is that we should cease talking about “Pagan studies” and instead embrace “the academic study of modern Paganism”. The article caught the eye of the scholar of esotericism Egil Asprem, who kindly posted about it in a very positive manner over at his blog, Heterodoxology (here). This post subsequently resulted in an interesting debate in the blog’s comment section which contained contributions from the prominent scholar of esotericism Wouter Hanegraaff and from the scholars of Paganism Chas S. Clifton and Amy Hale

The second article of mine to have been recently published is titled “The New Cultus of Antinous: Hadrian’s Deified Lover and Contemporary Queer Paganism”. Appearing in Nova Religio: The Journal of Alternative and Emergent Religions volume 20, issue 1, this article outlines some research that I carried out in 2014 into the Pagan new religious movement that has grown up in veneration of Antinous, the male lover of the Emperor Hadrian who was deified upon drowning in the Nile. Far less theoretically oriented than my Pomegranate paper, this article instead seeks to document a new religious community that has largely sprung up only in the last fifteen years and which thus far has evaded any sustained academic attention. Particularly interesting is that the modern veneration of Antinous represents a form of ‘Queer Paganism’, with the majority of its practitioners being gay men who revere Antinous as “the gay god”.

My third article is on the topic of “Old Stones, New Rites: Contemporary Pagan Interactions with the Medway Megaliths”. Again based on research that I conducted in 2014, this article has been published in Material Religion: The Journal of Objects, Art and Belief volume 12, issue 3. Those familiar with my work will be aware of my longstanding interest in the ways that modern Pagan and other religious communities interpret and make use of archaeological material (see for instance here and here), and this article takes that approach further by examining how the Medway Megaliths of Kent have been utilised by the area’s Pagan community. In particular I have examined how different Pagan groups approach these prominent landscape features; for certain Heathens, these are places that symbolically cement a connection to their ancestors of the blood, whereas for Druids, they cement a connection to their ancestors of the land. 

For those perhaps more interested in my work on modern witchcraft and Wicca (on the subject of which I wrote my somewhat recent book), I have also published a book review of Philip Heselton’s recent biography, Doreen Valiente: Witch, again in the latest issue of The Pomegranate. Unlike the other works cited here, this one is available to read and download for free, either from the Pomegranate website (here) or my own account (here).

Saturday, 9 July 2016

Pagan Studies, Medieval Magic, and Satanic Ritual Abuse: A Summary of Some Recent London Conferences on the Study of Esotericism and Paganism

The past month has borne witness to a number of academic workshops and conferences here in London which I suspect would be of interest to a great many of those involved in the academic study of contemporary Paganism and esotericism. Given that for most of my colleagues in these fields, particularly those living in North America and Australia, a quick trip over to Britain just isn’t feasible, here I’ll provide a brief overview of these events coupled with some of my own personal reflections on them, with the hope that doing so will help to ensure that scholars of these fields will be able to gain a better appreciation of some of the work currently being undertaken in my own little corner of the world.

Social anthropologist Jonathan Woolley talked about
methodological approaches to the study of Paganism
The first of these events was “Researching Pagans and Paganism”, held in the basement of Treadwell’s bookshop in Bloomsbury on Monday 20th June. This evening workshop consisted of two talks on the subject of how best to conduct research into contemporary Paganism(s), the first from social anthropologist Jonathan Woolley, a doctoral student at Cambridge University, and the latter from Douglas Ezzy, a sociologist from the University of Tasmania currently visiting Europe. While I cannot recall all of the details of their respective arguments, their talks dealt with such issues as how to define Paganism, the insider/outsider debate, and how to respond to the concerns raised in Markus Altena Davidsen’s 2012 critique of Pagan studies (many of these issues will be dealt with in an article of mine in the forthcoming issue of The Pomegranate: The International Journal of Pagan Studies, an unpublished draft of which Woolley was kind enough to cite in his talk). The two talks were followed by a panel discussion between Woolley, Ezzy, and the audience of approximately twenty attendees, most of whom were members of the Pagan community – among them a number of prominent names – but also a few of those active in the academic study of contemporary Paganism too, such as myself and Kavita Maya, a doctoral candidate at the School of Oriental and African Studies. This was the first British event devoted to the academic study of Paganism since last summer’s “Generation Hex: The Politics of Contemporary Paganism” conference at Cambridge (which was co-organised by Woolley and Maya alongside Elizabeth Cruse), and hopefully reflects growing activity among the coterie of scholars of Paganism presently active within the United Kingdom. Certainly, it has been good to have a public academic discussion of the methodological and theoretical issues facing this field take place here in the UK, given that in recent years such discussions have been largely restrained to the Pagan Studies Session of the American Academy of Religions annual conference.

The upturned pentagram is the most common symbol of Satanism
Treadwell’s was subsequently involved in co-organising “UK Satanic Abuse Scare, 25 Years On”, an evening conference on the Satanic ritual abuse (SRA) hysteria that hit Britain in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Held at the London School of Economics (LSE) on Tuesday 5th July, the event was produced in conjunction with INFORM, a charity based at the LSE that is dedicated to promoting accurate knowledge about new religious movements and other alternative and/or controversial spiritual groups. The conference was divided into two halves, the first comprising academic and scholarly approaches to the subject, the second devoted to the voices of Pagan practitioners who were negatively impacted by the moral panic. Kicking off the event was a talk by the anthropologist Jean La Fontaine, whose influential (yet at times controversial) research in the early 1990s demonstrated that there was no evidence for a widespread conspiracy of Satanists involved in the ritualised abuse and murder of children (as a number of evangelical Christian groups and media outlets were then claiming). This was followed by INFORM’s Sarah Harvey and Amanda Van Eck, who delved into the charity’s archives to look at how the British public’s response to contemporary Paganism and occultism has shifted since the group’s founding in 1988, paying particular attention to the concerns generated by the SRA panic. Next up was the journalist Rosie Waterhouse of City University London, whose own research during the early 1990s helped to demonstrate and publicise the lack of hard evidence behind most accusations of SRA. She outlined her own experiences and work on the subject, also drawing parallels between the SRA panic of the late 80s/early 90s and the way in which some journalists have reported on the allegations of sexual abuse directed at various celebrities in recent years. After a brief break, the conference continued with an interesting talk from Prudence Jones, the former President of the Pagan Federation, and then Phil Hine, the former editor of Pagan News, who each described their own experiences as prominent figures within the British Pagan community during the time of the hysteria.

The event was obviously dealing with a very sensitive and contentious subject matter, and one on which many people have strong and vocal opinions. However, one thing that I thought notable about the event was that the speakers invited all fell very much on one side of the debate (i.e. they were those who strongly believe that accounts of SRA are all, or virtually all, unsubstantiated and untrue, the product of a moral panic). There are of course others who have contested this approach and argued that – while an international conspiracy of child molesting and murdering Satanists is unlikely – some of those claiming to have been the victims of ritualised abuse are accurately relating events that they have experienced. Moreover, since the late 1990s, a number of Pagans and/or occultists have been arrested and convicted of sexually abusing minors: prominent examples include Robin Angus Fletcher in Australia, Colin Batley in Wales, Redvers Barnard in Greater Manchester, and Peter Petrauske in Cornwall. Clearly, sexual abuse affects the Pagan and occult communities in much the same way that it affects many other religious and indeed secular communities. Moreover, in certain instances (in particular that of Fletcher) that abuse is carried out in a manner that religious studies scholars could perhaps categorise as being “ritualised”, with perpetrators seeking to legitimise their actions by reference to their religious beliefs. This is clearly a different phenomenon from the idea of a massive Satanic conspiracy involving mass molestations and murders, but it muddies the waters and makes the entire issue more difficult to explore, particularly in a dispassionate manner.

The Warburg Institute. Photograph by Philafrenzy, Wikimedia
Two days later, on Thursday 7th July, the Warburg Institute played host to “Magical Traditions and Medieval Religions of the Book”, a one-day workshop organised by UCL’s Sophie Page on behalf of the European Society for the Study of Western Esotericism (ESSWE). The event was designed primarily for MA and PhD students, and included a session on doctoral and early career advice (special thanks must go out to Egil Asprem and Liana Saif for their recommendations on how to secure post-doctoral funding, something of particular concern to me). However, the event also contained lectures from a number of guest speakers, including Siam Bhayro from Exeter University on his research into the Jewish Aramaic inscriptions on the so-called ‘magic bowls’ of late antique Mesopotamia, Saif on the place of magic in Medieval Islam, and Adelina Angusheva-Tihanov from the University of Manchester on Slavic amulet books from the Balkans. This was then followed by a keynote from Jean-Patrice Boudet of the University of Orleans, in which he spoke on the different ways in which magical traditions were approached in Medieval Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. It was great to see how well attended the event was, particularly given that this was ESSWE’s first event to be held in London. The first of many, perhaps?

Despite being a major global hub and home to some of the world’s foremost universities, London has arguably lagged behind many other parts of the Western world when it comes to the academic study of contemporary Paganism and esotericism. Over the past few decades, the study of Western esotericism has begun to blossom in much of continental Europe while the study of Paganism has advanced in the United States, but Britain – perhaps because of its weaker institutional framework for the study of religion than many other Western nations – hasn’t quite kept up. I’m really hoping that the events which we have seen in London this summer, alongside the Cambridge conference last year, reflect that that is changing. Britain, and indeed London itself, has played a crucial role in the development of many Pagan and occult traditions, from Wicca and Druidry to Thelema and the New Age movement, and so it is only apt that this nation and this city also comes to be seen as an important centre for the study of these fascinating phenomena.